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November 30, 2022
Salesforce

What Is Salesforce Database

Uncovering crucial aspects of the Salesforce database: how it works, what benefits and challenges it carries.

I. Introduction

Salesforce Database is a multi-tenant database system used to store customer data securely. It allows multiple customers to share the same infrastructure while keeping their data separate.

Some key facts about the Salesforce Database:

  • It is built on a relational database model and uses SQL as the query language. However, direct SQL access is not provided to customers.
  • It uses a schema-on-read approach rather than a traditional schema-on-write. This allows dynamic addition of custom fields and objects without altering tables.
  • Each customer's data is stored in a separate organization to enable multi-tenancy. Physical data separation is maintained through the use of organization IDs.
  • For scalability, database shards are used to distribute load across instances. Data automatically replicates across shards.
  • Salesforce provides customer data backup, recovery, and availability capabilities like point-in-time recoveries.
  • Advanced security features like encryption and masking enhance data protection. Granular access controls allow restricting data access.
  • It supports storing various types of data, including files, images, emails, etc. Multiple APIs for data manipulation and migration are also available.
  • Performance and capacity are optimized through caching layers like query and object caches. Indexing is handled automatically.

II. Overview of Salesforce Database Architecture

Salesforce uses a multi-tenant architecture for its cloud-based Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platform. This allows multiple customers to access the same Salesforce application and database instance. The key layers and components of the Salesforce architecture are:

  1. Lightning - the newest Salesforce UI released in 2014. It provides a modern, responsive design for desktop and mobile, replacing the older Classic interface. It allows for faster load times and smoother navigation. Lightning uses Salesforce Metadata API and Optimizer to customize applications.
  2. Einstein - Salesforce's artificial intelligence platform released in 2016. It supplies users with AI capabilities like predictions, recommendations, and automation across the platform. Key components include Einstein Vision, Language, Conversations, and Prediction Builder. It uses machine learning and data from Salesforce users to get smarter over time.
  3. Thunder - the core computing infrastructure that runs the Salesforce multi-tenant environment. Thunder provides the foundation for database storage, service delivery, and security. Key components include Database.com (a storage layer that underlies all Salesforce data), Force.com (the platform for custom application development and integration), and Heroku (the platform for deploying and running custom applications written in languages like Ruby, Java, Node.js, etc.).

At the core, Salesforce uses a customized object-relational database based on Oracle. It allows storage of customers' business objects and relationships between them. Some key components include tables, indexes, and queries. The database infrastructure is designed to scale as customers add more data. Technologies like table partitioning, server clustering, and load balancing help distribute workload. Salesforce claims the ability to scale to billions of records and thousands of transactions per second.

Customer data is kept logically separate through a unique organization ID. This allows efficient utilization of resources across a large customer base. Database servers are replicated in real-time to prevent data loss. If the primary database fails, the secondary database can take over immediately. As a cloud service, Salesforce employs firewalls, encryption, and other tools to protect customer data. Data is encrypted both at rest and in motion. Access control and sharing rules prevent unauthorized access.

The following are some crucial aspects of the Salesforce database architecture:

  • combination of several layers creates an architecture with multiple tenants
  • consistency of functions is ensured by multi-tenancy throughout the user enterprise's growth and evolution
  • the information contains custom configurations, features, and scripts that make the site easier to navigate
  • the core set of services offered by Salesforce consists of APIs, data services, and AI services
  • APIs that can find metadata make it possible for the Salesforce database's components to share information quickly.

Why Oracle?

Even though the two are competitors, their relationship is semi-symbiotical.

Salesforce uses Oracle database primarily because

  • With a multi-tenant architecture, Salesforce needs a database that can scale elastically. Oracle databases are highly scalable and can handle the enormous amounts of data and transactions that Salesforce processes.
  • They are known for their stability and ability to provide consistent uptime. This is critical for Salesforce, which promises high availability for its SaaS applications. Oracle's features, like Real Application Clusters, provide database redundancy.
  • Oracle incorporates advanced performance features like automatic memory management, adaptive optimizations, and compression to deliver fast response times even as data volumes grow. This ensures good performance for Salesforce's applications.
  • Oracle offers robust security capabilities like database vault, data redaction, encryption, etc. They help Salesforce meet stringent security and compliance needs, especially when dealing with sensitive customer data.
  • Oracle database is available as a managed cloud service like Oracle Exadata cloud service. This aligned with Salesforce's cloud-first approach as opposed to on-premise deployments.
  • Salesforce already had significant investments in Oracle database skills and tools. Transitioning to another database would have required considerable retooling and training.
  • Oracle has been Salesforce's trusted database platform for over a decade. The two companies have a partnership for deeper technology integrations.

How Does It Work?

Since Salesforce uses a relational database model built on a customized version of Oracle Database, it has the flexibility of SQL queries and standard relational database functionality. Data is stored in logical units called organizations. Each customer is assigned their own organization containing all their data and applications. The org serves as a container for segregating and securing data.

Furthermore, Salesforce uses unique IDs for all records to distinguish them across organizations. Even if two customers have one with the same name, the unique IDs ensure data isolation. Sharing rules and object-level security enable record-level security, and admins can configure access settings to restrict data and object visibility on a granular level.

Query optimizers, caching, and other performance features enable fast access across millions of records and large datasets. The database infrastructure is designed to scale seamlessly: data replication and backups help prevent data loss and ensure high availability. Salesforce uses redundancy to deliver uptime and reliability.

Salesforce Data Synchronization

Data transfer from Salesforce to other external systems is crucial to managing the database. Examples of external systems are applications for handling data, warehouses, other databases, etc. The source data's amount, accuracy, and format significantly impact migrating or syncing data from Salesforce.

To solve errors that might happen when a large amount of data needs to be migrated, Salesforce makes use of a virtual environment known as Org. This facilitates the precise data transfer from the Salesforce Database to other platforms.

Data migration and org migration are two crucial processes in Salesforce:

  • Data migration involves transferring data from one system to another. It involves moving data from an external source or an older Salesforce instance into a new org. The process of data migration requires careful planning and execution to ensure that data is accurately transferred while maintaining data integrity. The data can be migrated using tools like Data Loader, Data Import Wizard, and third-party integration tools.
  • Org migration involves moving the whole org, including data, metadata, and settings, from one environment to another. Typically, businesses undergo org migration when they want to upgrade to a new version of Salesforce or merge two orgs. The process of org migration is complex and requires a detailed understanding of the source and target orgs' structure. Salesforce offers tools like change sets, Salesforce CLI, and managed packages to carry out org migration in a controlled manner.

III. Benefits of Salesforce Database

The Salesforce database provides several key benefits for businesses:

  • Scalability. The Salesforce database is highly scalable, allowing companies to expand their usage as they grow easily. Salesforce utilizes a multi-tenant architecture that efficiently handles massive amounts of data and traffic. Even large enterprises with terabytes of data and millions of users can rely on Salesforce without performance issues.
  • Reliability. Salesforce has high uptime, redundancy, and disaster recovery capabilities to keep data safe and continuously available. Their infrastructure is distributed across multiple data centers and utilizes real-time data replication. Salesforce guarantees at least 99.9% uptime, ensuring 24/7 availability.
  • Flexibility. Companies can customize Salesforce extensively to match their specific business needs. Salesforce offers drag-and-drop workflow builders, configurable dashboards, and the ability to build custom apps and integrations on the platform. Fields, objects, and tabs can be added easily as needed.
  • Collaboration. Salesforce includes built-in tools for collaboration like Chatter. Teams can securely share information and collaborate within the system. Customer account records can have many users collaborating together.
  • Analytics & Reporting. Salesforce provides powerful analytics and reporting capabilities to gain insights from data. Dashboards can track KPIs in real time. Tools like Einstein Analytics allow advanced reporting with AI-driven predictions. This enables data-driven decision-making.
  • Mobile Capabilities. With robust mobile apps for iOS and Android, employees can access CRM data on the go. Mobile access to records, notifications, and productivity features keep teams connected.
  • Cloud-Based. As a SaaS platform, Salesforce eliminates the need for on-premise hardware and software. The cloud delivery model simplifies deployment and administration. Automated upgrades keep users on the latest version seamlessly.

IV. Challenges of Implementing Salesforce Database

Implementing Salesforce can pose two major challenges - the complexity of setup and configuration and the high cost of implementation. However, you can overcome those with proper planning and management.

The complexity of setting up and configuring Salesforce stems from its highly customizable nature. Salesforce offers numerous features, applications, and integrations that each business can tailor to their needs. However, this also means implementation can become complex as teams must decide which features to use, how to configure them, and how they will integrate with other systems. To mitigate this issue, you must thoroughly evaluate business needs upfront and develop a detailed deployment roadmap. Phased rollouts can also help reduce complexity by allowing more time for testing and adjustments. Additionally, working with experienced Salesforce consultants can provide guidance on best practices.

The high cost of Salesforce implementation also gives pause to many organizations. Between license fees, add-ons, customizations, and integrations, costs can add up quickly. However, there are ways to maximize value and ROI. Taking advantage of Salesforce's expanding capabilities can reduce the need for custom features. Cloud-based pricing models also allow costs to scale with business growth, while partnering with third-party apps and marketplaces can supplement capabilities at lower price points. Lastly, taking the time to properly optimize and utilize Salesforce once implemented ensures the organization realizes total value from its investment.

While Salesforce's power and customizability lend to complexity and high costs, its benefits tend to outweigh the initial implementation challenges for most organizations.

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